Fungicide application effect depended also on sowing date, but in majority cases were not related to sowing rate. Reduction was more rapid for L type festulolium varieties than for F type festulolium varieties. Lenzner TÜ , prof T. Loomade üldseisund, söögiisu ja üldine aktiivsus olid head. Root neck diameter below 10 mm is considered as acceptable for oilseed rape growing in conditions with milder winters, example Central Europe Becka et al. Postoperatiivselt tehtud röntgenogrammidel on kõikidel loomadel selgelt nähtav toruluu murrujoon joonis 1.
Data of three first sowing dates are represented 8 8 O. Gaile in this paper because it was without agronomical rationale to apply growth regulator for small plants sown on 1 st and 10 th September.
Factor B fungicide application B1 control, without fungicide; B2 fungicide applied as growth regulator. Fungicide application scheme: 0.
Pre-crop was cereal mixture for silage in all years. Traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing was used, rototilling was used before sowing.
The crop was fertilized with a complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of N 12 to 28 kg ha 1, P 18 to 30 kg ha 1, and K 79 to kg ha 1 before sowing depending on little different soil conditions in the trial year. Sowing was done according to the previously described design. Weeds were controlled using herbicide Butisan Star s.
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Number of leaves per plant Noleave, plant, root weight groot length cmdiameter of root neck mmand height of growth-point mm were measured in laboratory. ANOVA two-factor with replications within each sowing dateand three-factor factors A, B and C mentioned above analysis of variance were used for processing the experimental data of each separate variety.
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Effect of variety on plant growth characterising parameters is not mathematically evaluated. Meteorological data were collected from automatically working meteorological station approximately 1 km from trial site. Meteorological conditions were considerably different in each trial year and that caused differences between plant biometrical indices through all trial years.
October and characterizes with very low mean air temperatures. August and September was relatively dry, but August was extremely wet Fig. The heat accumulated by oilseed rape plants over autumns in trial years was also sufficiently different depending on year; growing degree days GDD Bonhomme, for characterization of warmth conditions were calculated using formula 1 : GDD T T 2 max min T 1 base where T max - average daily maximum temperature; T min average daily minimum temperature; T base base temperature 5 0 C.
Growing Degree Days GDDfrom first sowing date 1 st August up to the arevus ja kaalulangus of vegetative growth was as follows: GDD inGDD inGDD in and GDD in year First decade of August was critical for amount of precipitation in all four trial years see Figure 1 ; in year and lack of scion xtend kaalulangus was observed even in ten day period before 1 st sowing date that explains slow seed germination and later plant development Figure1.
Rapid kaalulangus neerupuudulikkus period mean temperature below 5 0 C for at least 3 days ended on 4 th November in and and did renew for eight to five days period up to 4 th December; at 1 st November in ; at 7 th November in Precipitation, mm August September October Period of time Mean temperature, oc Figure 1.
Mean air temperature and precipitation in RSF ʻVecauceʼ in autumn to Rape sown on fourth 1 September and fifth 10 September scion xtend kaalulangus dates did not achieve necessary stage for fungicide application at the first ten-day period of October in all trial years. From the four-year trial results we can conclude that winter oilseed rape biometrical parameters were influenced by fungicide application in autumn period and fungicide application effect depended also on sowing date.
First sowing date 1 st August is declared as early sowing date for winter oilseed rape in Latvia conditions because of overgrowth possibility that causes risk for overwintering Gaveliene et al. Plant growth regulation is expected to give more effect on plant biometrical parameters in such early sowings.
At the same time, plant mass depended on used cultivar and conditions of trial year: ʻExcaliburʼ hybrid F1 formed bigger plants if compared to ʻCaliforniumʼ line Table 1. Average per all sowing dates and treatments plant mass was the g scion xtend kaalulangus ʻCaliforniumʼ depending on the year, and g for ʻExcaliburʼ; the smallest plants were formed in autumnwhen conditions were cooler if compared to long-term average data long-term date is obtained from regional Hydro Meteorological Station ʻDobeleʼ.
Plants of ʻCaliforniumʼ see Table 1 were small in both years and ; biggest plants did not exceed g in and did not look overgrown. Other important biometrical indices for plant autumn growth are height of growth point should be less than 30 mm and root neck diameter should reach 8 to 10 mm. Height of growth point was highest in plots sown on 1 st August in all trial years Table 2.
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Gaile Cultivar ʻExcaliburʼ formed higher average height of growth point if compared to ʻCaliforniumʼ and accordingly risky value for height of growth point above 30 mm more frequently was observed 21 slim down ʻExcaliburʼ plants sown on 1 st August,and on 10 th August Totallly, decrease of growth point was observed in 18 cases from 24 per trial period Table 2 ; again some exceptions with increase of growth point in result of fungicide application were observed Table 2.
Mainly our results are similar to those obtained by V. Gaveliene et al. Miliuviene et al.
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We obtained similar results also in our previous investigations with only one sowing time 20 th Augustbut using more varieties and different fungicides Bankina et al. Root neck diameter below 10 mm is considered as acceptable for oilseed rape growing in conditions with milder winters, example Central Europe Becka et al. Other researchers found that application of growth regulators can increase root neck diameter Miliuviene et al. Effect of growth regulation on average root neck diameter of ʻCaliforniumʼ was unsubstantial in all trial years; effect of growth regulation on root neck diameter of ʻExcaliburʼ F1 on average was also unsubstantial in andbut mathematically substantial decrease of average rot neck diameter in opposite to desirable effect was observed in and Table 3.
Decrease of ʻExcaliburʼsʼ root neck diameter in by 0. More and significant effect on root neck diameter was shown by sowing time and used cultivar hybrid formed bigger root neck diameter scion xtend kaalulangus compared with line, Table 3. This is in accordance with our previous research Bankina et al.
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Differences from results of other researchers can be caused by used growth regulator, varieties and conditions of trial. Number of leaves per plant increased in result of fungicide application in all trial years on all three sowing dates and for both cultivars. This is in accordance with results of other researchers and our previous investigations Miliuviene et al. Other researchers Gaveliene et al. Our previous results also showed such tendency Balodis et al. Opposite results were obtained from pot experiments, when significant influence on root biomass was not obtained by any of the plant growth regulators Bruns et al, Cases with non-significant effect of fungicide Juventus 90 on fresh root mass prevailed per four trial years for both cultivars and three sowing dates in our experiments, but tendency of fresh root mass increase was noted in 15 cases from Root length changes of ʻCaliforniumʼ in result of fungicide application also was non-significant, but tendency of root length increase was observed in 8 cases from Fungicide application effect depending on sowing rate As different sowing rates were used for both varieties, we have analysed also fungicide effect depending on sowing rate.
Sowing rate is the first cause of different plant densities Balodis, Gaile,but depending on plant density different values of rape plant biometric indices can be formed. Becka et al. Fungicide application effect on fresh plant mass was similar for all sowing rates when tendency was observed to decrease plant mass it was similar at all sowing rates:, and Plant mass increased at all sowing rates of ʻCaliforniumʼ inbut that of ʻExcaliburʼ in decreased at lower rates 20 and 40 germinate able seeds per 1 m 2but increased at higher rates 60 and 80 germinate able seeds per 1 m 2.
Effect of fungicide application on fresh plant mass depending on sowing rate in majority cases was insignificant. Average height of growth point with some exceptions decreased at each sowing rate for both varieties.
Though interesting was observation that in years and tendency of root neck diameter increase was observed at seven from eight cases, but the opposite situation was observed in years and when root scion xtend kaalulangus diameter scion xtend kaalulangus and insignificantly decreased. Tendency to decrease root neck diameter in result of fungicide application was observed for ʻExcaliburʼ in 13 cases from The tendency of leavesʼ number increase in result of fungicide application was observed in majority cases in 11 Fungicide as growth regulator application effect on winter oil seed rape Brassica napus L trial years, when different sowing rates were used, but significant increase scion xtend kaalulangus observed at 14 cases from Relationship with specifically used sowing rate was not noted: significant increase of rape leaves per plant in result of fungicide as growth regulator application was observed at least for one time at each sowing rate.
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Only a tendency was observed that at lower sowing rates more leaves increased at the result of growth regulation if compared to higher sowing rates for variety ʻCaliforniumʼ in all trial years example for ʻCaliforniumʼ in B1C1 without fungicide, sowing rate germinating seeds per 1 m 2 5. Such tendency was not noted for ʻExcaliburʼ. Table 4. Effect of fungicide application on root length at different sowing rates in majority cases was insignificant, but a tendency was observed that root length increased in 21 cases scion xtend kaalulangus Fungicide as growth regulator also had insignificant effect on root mass at different sowing rates.
Only two exceptions were observed: significantly root mass increased for ʻCaliforniumʼ in the result of fungicide application when sown at the rates of and 80 germinate able seeds per 1 m 2 in Judging from obtained results, one can say that sowing rate as initial reason of plant density did not cause particular effect of fungicide application.
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Increase or decrease of values of plant biometric indices in the result of fungicide application was caused rather by used cultivar, sowing date, meteorological conditions at particular sowing date and in specific year or other scion xtend kaalulangus.
May be more relationship between exact plant density and direction increase or decrease of plant parameter of fungicide application effect can be detected, but it can be clarified in next investigations. Conclusions 1.
Fungicide as growth regulator Juventus 90 s. More marked fungicide effect on values of plant biometric parameters was observed when they were analysed at three different sowing dates. Tendency was observed that plant mass and height of growth point decreased in fungicide treated plots, but result depended from conditions in trial year and variety. Sowing rate as initial reason of scion xtend kaalulangus density did not cause particular effect of fungicide application influence on plant biometric parameters.
References Balodis, O. Growth regulation possibility during autumn of oil-seed rape Brassica napus L. In Lund, M. Fungicide application effect on yield and quality formation of winter oil-seed rape Brassica napus L. In Gaile, Z. In: Gaile, Z. In Carisse, O. InTech, p Becka, D. Plant and Soil Environment, 50, p 12 12 O. Gaile Bonhomme, R Bases and limits to using ʻdegree dayʼ units. European Journal of Agronomy, 13, pp Bruns, G. Crop Sci. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. Horticulture and vegetable growing, 17 3p Gaveliene, V.
Effects of auxin analogues on the formation of oilseed rape generative organs and plant winterhardiness.
LLU, Jelgava, p. In Latvian Miliuviene, L. The effect of retardant analogues on oilseed rape growth. C Effect of the apetalous flower character on radiation distribution in the crop canopy, yield and its components in oilseed rape Brassica napus.
The objective of this research was to study the influence of fertilization rate on dry matter yield structure and sward persistency of Festulolium and Lolium x boucheanum varieties under agro-ecological conditions of Latvia. Forages were harvested three times during the growing season.
Andrianov, A. Arend, M. Uudse kombineeritud fiksaatori kasutamine pikkade toruluude murdumise ravis Balodis, Z. Fungicide as growth regulator application effect on winter oil seed rape Brassica napus L autumn growth
Festulolium hybrids are among the most persistent and productive genotypes of the grasses used in many Europe countries, especially in adverse environments. The productivity of grasslands mostly depends on cultivated grass cultivars.
The results of the experiments in the years highlight the significant DM yield dependence on used variety and the N fertilizer dose increase. On the average the N fertilizer dose increase from to kg ha 1 contributed to DM yield increase by 1.
In the first year of yielding the positive effect of increased nitrogen rates was better expressed on loloid Festulolium cultivars DM yield, and was less expressed on festucoid Festulolium cultivars. On second and third year of the yielding difference in increased nitrogen rates positive effect between loloid and festucoid Festulolium cultivars were not observed.
Increasing amount of scion xtend kaalulangus fertiliser provided significant increase in seed yields for all trial varieties. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rates on seed yield formative elements was different in trial years. Keywords: Festulolium, Lolium x boucheanum, nitrogen fertilization, grassland productivity.
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Introduction Nitrogen fertilization is a management factor that greatly influences the perennial grass yield. Lolium species requires high nitrogen fertilisation when it is grown scion xtend kaalulangus high dry matter yield. Rasvade lagunemise suurendamiseks parandage vereringet, mille tulemusena võib rasvhappeid transportida põletamisse koesse, rasvhapete põletamine suureneb. Samuti on vaja kasutada narkootikume, mis aitavad blokeerida Alpha 2 retseptoreid, mis vastutavad kogunenud rasva.
Kujutage ette, kui te võiksite võtta teaduslikult keedetud kana ja brokkoli kaalulangus sünergistlikke koostisosi, et pakkuda kogu peamist baasi ja tagada, et te saaksite mõeldamatu energia ja uskumatu vastupidavuse, mis aitavad teil koolituse järgmisele tasandile tagasi võtta. Nüüd kujutage ette, et te saaksite oma lihaseid treeningu ajal toita, et säilitada lihaste kasvu ja lõpmatu energia parandamisega.
Kui scion xtend kaalulangus meeldib keegi siin kasutate PGN-i või meeskonna skivi, siis teie unistus on tõeks. Nüüd, kui olete unistanud. Scion XTend on piiri kunagi varem kasutatud valem, selle ajal ja pärast koolitust. Sciiving annab teile kõik selle uskumatu hinnaga ühe täieliku virna.
Väsimus ja valkude katabolismi lagunemise suurenemine. Kui teil pole piisavalt jõudu ja survet, et suurendada rohkem ja rohkem kaalu iga treeningu, siis te ei kasva. Kui te tunnistate kontrollimatu valgu lagunemise taset ja lihaste hävitamist koolituse ajal - te ei kasva. Ilma õige koolituseta toitlustamine ei kasva ja ei jõua ja ei saavutata tasandil, mis võiks saavutada toitumise ja lisaainete hästi läbimõeldud strateegiaga. Scion on nõustunud väidetava koolituse kava ja lõi kombineeritud söödalisandi, mis suurendas teie energiat ja jõudlust, viivitus väsimust ja vähendas valgu lagunemist valgu sünteesi suurenemisega lihaste kasvu võti.
Scion Vaso. Söögivilja Vasoo on välja töötatud koostisosade põhjal, mis on teaduslikult põhjendatud töö ja lihaste kasvu parandamiseks.
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See sisaldab sünergistlikke koostisosi, mis töötavad koos, et saada tulemusi, mida näete järgmisel tasandil. Vasocarge luuakse selleks, et võimaldada teil treeningu intensiivsust suurendada edasilükatud väsimuse ajal, mis tagab suurema edu. Vaso suurendab energiatootmist ja võimsust, vähendab väsimust ja suurendab vereringet ja aminohapete manustamist skeletilihastes, mis muudab tõelise eel-kolmekordse elektrijaama lisamise.
Scion XTend. Scion XTendi lisand on mõeldud valgu, taaskasutamise ja jõudluse sünteesi suurendamiseks, kasutades hargnenud aminohapete ACAL-glutamiini ja Citrulliin Malat'i teatud segu.
ACA on vaja koolituseks. Üldiselt on ASA metaboolne roll järgmine: Energiatootmise alus. Meie eesmärk on kliendi rahulolu! Tänu varu seisund ja ajalisi erinevusi, me valida, laeva oma kauba meie esimene vaba lao puhul, kiire tarne. Me müüja ei ole vastutav imporditollimaksu, ostja vastutab selle eest. Mis tahes vaidlus, mis on scion xtend kaalulangus selle on põhjendamatu.
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